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“Mandela Day” umunsi wahariwe impirimbanyi y’Amahoro Nelson Mandela

Kuva taliki 18 Nyakanga 2009, isi yose izirikana ibigwi by’umugabo  w’abaye urugero mu guharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu Nelson Mandela, abinyujije mu kurwanya ubutegetsi bw’ivangura Apartheid bwari mu gihugu cye.

Nelson Mandela – Yousuf Karsh

Ni umunsi hibukwa umurage yasigiye isi n’icyo abariho ubu bakwiriye kumwigiraho kugira ngo Isi irusheho kuba nziza.

Itariki yo kongera kumwibuka ni uyu munsi. Ibi ni bimwe mu bintu 15 wamwibukiraho bitavuzwe cyane.

1. Izina nyaryo ry’Umusaza Mandela ni – Rolihlahla – rikaba ari izina ryo mu bwoko bwe bwa bw’aba Xhosa. Iri zina risobanura “Gukurura ishami ry’igiti”, mu mvugo yindi bisobanura “Umuntu utera ibibazo” mu rurimi rw’Icyongereza “troublemaker“. Ubundi izina Nelson, Mandela yaryiswe n’umwalimu w’umumisiyoneri ubwo yigaga  mu mashuri abanza agiye kubatizwa.

2. Mandela yirukanwe muri Kaminuza ya Fort Hare nyuma yo kwifatanya n’abanyeshuri bigaragambyaga kubera amafunguro mabi bahabwaga. Nyuma yaje kurangiriza amashuri ye muri Kaminuza nini muri Afrika y’Epfo yitwa Unisa, aho yakomereje afite impamyabumenyi ihanitse mu mategeko yari akuye muri Kaminuza yitwa Wits University yo mu mujyi wa Johannesburg. Ari muri gereza ya Robben Island yize (iyakure) amategeko mu ishuri ry’i Londres mu Ubwongereza.

3. Mandela yahunze agace kitwa Cape ajya ahitwa Johannesburg ubwo umutware w’ubwoko bw’abitwa Tembu, Jongintaba Dalindyebo, ariwe wamureze nyuma y’urupfu rwa se, yashakaga gushyingira Mandela ku ngufu. Mandela ageze Johannesburg yabonye akazi kogukora mu kirombe gicurwamo amabuye y’agaciro, nk’umuzamu ukora ijoro.

4. Mandela yanabaye mu gace kitwa Alexandra aho yavuye we n’umuryango wa Walter Max Sisulu nawe warwanyaga ubutegetsi bubi bwa Apartheid bwariho muri Afurika y’Epfo, bajya ahitwa Orlando, mu gace ka Soweto.

5. Umufasha wa mbere wa Mandela yitwa Evelyn Mase, yari umuforomokazi ndetse akaba mubyara wa Walter Sisulu. Uyu Evelyn niwe wari ufite icyo yinjiza, azagufasha Mandela ubwo yigaga amategeko muri Kaminuza ya Wits University nyuma uyu mugore yabaye umunyapolitiki. Mbere yo gutandukana mu 1958 bari bamaze kubyarana abana bane.

6. Mu buyobozi bw’ishyaka ANC, Mandela yashinze umutwe w’insoresore zo kwihimura ku bazungu witwa “Umkhonto we Sizwe”, yayoboranaga n’uwitwa Oliver Tambo. Uyu Tambo baje gufatanya no gushinga bwa mbere muri Afrika y’Epfo ishyirahamwe ry’abanyamategeko, riburanira abahohotewe n’amategeko y’Apartheid.

7. Mu 1962, Mandela yavuye mu gihugu cye, ajya gushaka ubufasha bwa gisirikari. Icyo gihe yagiye kwiga ubucengezi mu bihugu bya Maroc na Ethiopia. Yagiye kandi mu Misiri, Guinea na Tunisia aho yabonanye na Habib Burghiba.

8. Uburyo Mandela yaje gutabwa muri yombi na polisi ahitwa Howick bivugwa ko yari yagambaniwe n’ibiro bishinzwe ubutasi muri Amerika CIA bigatanga amakuru y’aho aherereye. Mandela yashinjwe guhungabanya ubutegetsi no gushaka kubuhirika binyuze mu ntambara.

9. Mu gihe yari mu munyururu, Mandela yari afungiye mu kumba ka 2m x 2.5m katagira ikintu na kimwe uretse igitanda n’aho gukorera isuku. Ubwo kandi yajyaga gukora imirimo nsimbura gifungo yari yemerewe gusurwa n’umuntu umwe nyuma y’amezi atandatu ari nabwo yabashaga kwandika ibaruwa imwe muri icyo gihe.

10. Ubutegetsi bwa bagashakabuhake (apartheid) bwagerageje  gufungura Mandela inshuro  6 ariko arabatsembera. Imwe muri izo nshuro ni ubwo Mandela yandikaga amagambo agira ati “Mpa agaciro ubwigenge bwanjye cyane, ariko nita no ku bwanyu… Ni ubuhe bwigenge mpabwa mugihe ishyaka ANC n’abaririmo batemewe?”

11. Mandela yaje kwandika igitabo (memoir) mu mwaka wa 1970, amakopi ashyirwa mu masashi atabikwa mu murima Mandela yajyaga yitaho afunze. Icyo gihe hari ikizere cy’uko inshuti ye Mac Maharaj, bari bafunganye yari kuzazitaburura akazimenyekanisha ubwo we yarikuba afunguwe. Ku bw’amahirwe make za nyandiko zaje kubonwa n’abarindagereza bari bagiye kubaka urukuta rwa gereza, Mandela ahanishwa kudakomeza urwego rw’amashuri yari agezeho.

12. Nyuma yo gutandukanwa n’umugorewe wa kabiri, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, Mandela yinginze umurwanashyaka wari ukomeye bari bafitanye ubushuti bukomeye Amina Cachalia ko babana ariko uyu amutera utwatsi. Ku myaka ye 80, Mandela yaje kurongora umupfakazi Graça Machel, wari umufasha wa Samora Machel wabaye Perezida wa Mozambique.

13. Ishyaka ANC ryaje kwitwa umutwe w’iterabwoba n’ubutegetsi bwa bagashakabuhake, ndetse byemerwa gutyo n’ibihugu bikomeye na Amerika n’Ubwongereza. Mu 2008 ni bwo Amerika yakuye Mandela na bamwe mu barwanashyaka ba ANC ku rutonde rw’ibyihebe (abaterabwoba).

14. Mu kumuhesha agaciro Umuryango b’abibumbye (United Nations) wagize itariki ye y’amavuko 18 Nyakanga umunsi mpuzamahanga witirirwa Mandela (Nelson Mandela International Day). Ni ubwambere mu mateka y’isi umuntu ku giti cye yagize umunsi wizihizwa ku rwego mpuzamahanga.

15. Mandela yabonye amagana n’amagana y’ibihembo. Bimwe muri ibyo Mandela yari umuturage w’icyubahiro mu gihugu cya Canada, akaba umunyamuryango w’ikirenga mu ishyaka ry’abakozi mu Bwongereza (British Labour Party), ndetse yari umunyamuryango w’ikirenga mu ikipe ya Manchester United. Muri bimwe mu bikora intwaro z’ubumara (nuclear atoms) hari agace kamwitiriwe (the ‘Mandela particle’), mu bwoko bw’abantu ba kera cyane mu mateka hari abamwitiriwe (Australopicus Nelson mandela) kandi no mu ndabo hari umurima wamwitiriwe mu gihugu cya Singapore (Paravanda Nelson Mandela), n’ahandi hantu harenga 100 hamwitiriwe ku isi.

Amwe mu magambo y’ubuhanga Mandela yavuze afite byinshi asobanuye.

  • Bivugwa ko udashobora kumenya neza igihugu mu gihe utarafungirwa muri gereza zacyo
  • Igihugu ntabwo gishobora gupimirwa mu buryo gifata abaturage bacyo bakomeye, ahubwo gipimirwa mu buryo cyita ku baturage bacyo boroheje
  • Baho ubuzima nk’aho nta wundi uri kukureba, kandi uharanire kwigaragaza nk’aho buri wese ari kukureba
  • Nta bibazo biri muri iyi Si utahinduramo amahirwe mu gihe ufite ubushake n’ubumenyi ba ngombwa
  • Nta burezi, abana bawe ntibazabasha guhangana n’ibibazo bazahura nabyo mu buzima. Ni iby’agaciro rero guha abana uburezi kandi ukabasobanurira ko bagomba kugira uruhare mu iterambere ry’igihugu cyabo.
  • Amahoro ntabwo ari igihe hatari amakimbirane cyangwa imvururu, amahoro ni igihe hari uburyo butuma abantu bose bisanzura hatitawe ku bwoko, ibara, idini, igitsina n’ibindi bitandukanya abantu.
  • Ubwo nasohokaga mu marembo ya gereza mbonye ubwisanzure, nibutse ko nindamuka ntasize uburakari n’urwango inyuma, ntaho nzaba ntandukaniye n’abo nsize muri gereza.
  • Nkuko ubucakara n’ivanguramoko atari karemano, ni nako ubukene bumeze. Buterwa na muntu kandi bushobora kurandurwa binyuze mu bikorwa bya muntu.
  • Njya ndota Afurika Yunze Ubumwe aho abayobozi bayo bazaba bunze ubumwe bakemura ibibazo byugarije uyu mugabane.
  • Injiji zirushaho kwiyongera iyo abanyabwenge bicecekeye.

 

Hifashishijwe: umuseke,igihe/IGISUBIZO.COM

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