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Imyitwarire y’amashyaka mu gihe cyo guharanira ubwigenge

Buri mwaka itariki 1 Nyakanga u Rwanda ruzirikana umunsi rwaboneyeho ubwigenge,bwabubonye bwigobotoye ubukoroni bw’Ababiligi .

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Inzira yo kwigobotora Ubukoroni (1952 – 1962) mu gihe cy’imyaka icumi irakomeye mu mateka y’u Rwanda. Kumva ibyayibayemo ni kimwe mu byafasha umuntu kumenya amateka mu rwego rwa politiki n’urw’umubano mu Banyarwanda ubwabo. Nicyo gituma ari byiza kureba ibyagize uruhare mu mihindukire y’igihugu, no gusuzuma ibibazo by’ingutu byagiye bigaragara. Abagize uruhare, abantu n’imiryango, ni aba:

• Abaturage (rubanda) bari bafite ibibazo byinshi bimaze kubasaguka;
• Abategetsi b’Abanyarwanda, uhereye ku mwami Mutara Rudahigwa bari barambiwe igihugu cy’abakoloni, barangamiye ubwigenge;
• Abategetsi b’abakoloni, bari bafite gahunda yo gutegeka igihugu imyaka myinshi. Kubera ko wenda igihugu cyari indagizo nta gahunda y’iterambere bagaragazaga;
• Abize bari bari mu rwego rw’abitwaga “elites/elites”, ni ukuvuga indatwa, indobanure; banabitaga “evolues”. Ahanini ni abize mu maseminari (intoya n’inkuru) n’abize muri Groupe Scolaire d’Astrida.
• ONU guhera mu wa 1948, ONU yatangiye kohereza abayirebera imitegekere y’Ababiligi kubera ko uwo muryango wari waragiranye n’Ababiligi, kw’itariki ya 13 Ukuboza 1946, amasezerano yo kugira Rwanda-Urundi indagizo (Accord de Tutelle/Trusteeship);
• Kiliziya gatolika yari ivuye mu myidagaduro yerekana ko ariyo yari iri imbere mu gihugu, inafite uruhare mu buyobozi bwa politiki (isezerano rya Mutara Rudahigwa na Rosalie Gicanda, batisimu y’umwami n’umugabekazi, kwegurira u Rwanda Kristu umwami, guhabwa impeta ya Papa Piyo wa XII, ibirori by’akataraboneka by’imyaka mirongo 50 Kiliziya Gatolika yari imaze mu Rwanda byabereye Astrida mu w’i 1950), hakaba n’umwanya ugaragara Kiliziya gatolika yari itangiye guha abarayiki (laïcs) mu mirimo yayo, n’umwaduko w’indi miryango y’abihayimana kuko kugeza ubwo Abapadiri bera bari barihariye urubuga.

Kuko ahanini amashyaka akenshi na kenshi igira uruhare runini muri politiki y’igihugu reka tugaruke ku mwihariko wayo mu gihe cyo guharanira ubwigenge.

3.7. AMASHYAKA
Mbere ya 1959, nta mashyaka (partis politiques / political parties) yari yarigeze kuba mu Rwanda. N’ubwo ijambo “ishyaka” ryo ryari irya kera rikavuga “umwete wo kurusha abandi”, cyangwa “kugira umwete wo kurwanira icyo umuntu yemera kandi akunze”.

Icyakora na kera na kare, habayeho amakimbirane no mu rwego rw’ubutegetsi, kandi ibyo nta gitangaje. Ingero ziriho zigaragaza ukuntu amakimbirane yabyaye ubushyamirane burimo ubwicanyi (urugero ni Rucunshu), n’ubundi bushyamirane butoroshye, n’ubwo butabayemo ubwicanyi: hagati ya 1920 na 1931 kwa Yuhi Musinga habaye ubushyamirane hagati y’abahakirizwaga ku Bazungu bitaga “Abahababyi”, ni ukuvuga abajyaga kurega, n’abitwaga “Abayoboke”, ni ukuvuga abakomeye ku mwami.

Ibyo bice byombi byari bigizwe n’udutsiko turwanira inyungu zatwo mu bushyamirane (factions), ntabwo rero twari tugize amashyaka mu nyito y’ubungubu. Ayo makimbirane n’ubushyamirane ntibyari bishingiye ku moko, ku turere, ku nyungu, ku madini nk’uko byagaragaye mu mashyaka yo mu wa 1959.

Amashyaka yo mu wa 1959
Ayo mashyaka ari ukubiri: hari ayo bamwe bita “partis nationaux”, ni ukuvuga amashyaka yari afite abayoboke benshi, yari asakaye mu gihugu cyangwa mu duce tunini, akagira n’uburyo bugaragara bwo kwamamaza ibitekerezo byayo n’abayobozi bayatwaye bagaragara. Tuvuge ayo mashyaka ayo ari yo n’igihe yavukiye:

Amashyaka yo mu wa 1959
Ayo mashyaka ari ukubiri: hari ayo bamwe bita “partis nationaux”, ni ukuvuga amashyaka yari afite abayoboke benshi, yari asakaye mu gihugu cyangwa mu duce tunini, akagira n’uburyo bugaragara bwo kwamamaza ibitekerezo byayo n’abayobozi batwaye bagaragara. Tuvuge ayo mashyaka ayo ari yo n’igihe yavukiye; aya ni ane muriyo.

1.APROSOMA Association pour la Promotion Sociale de la Masse 15/02/1959

2.UNAR Union Nationale Rwandaise 13/09/1959

3.RADER Rassemblement Democratique Rwandaise 14/09/1959

4.PARMEHUTU Parti du Mouvement de l’Emancipation des Bahutu 09/10/1959
Hari n’andi mashyaka akabakaba makumyabiri ataragize uburemere byayo tumaze kuvuga. Ndetse urebye neza, amwe n’amwe muri ayo mashyaka mato yegamiye ayo ane manini. Ayo mashyaka matoya ni aya:

1) ABAKI Alliance des Bakiga
2) ABESC Association des Bahutu evuluant pour la suppression des castes
3) ACR Association des Cultivateurs du Rwanda
4) APADEC Association du Parti Democrate Chretien
5) APROCOMIN Association des Commerçants Indigenes
6) AREDETWA Association pour le Relevement Democratique des Batwa
7) ARUCO Alliance du Ruanda – Urundi et du Congo
8) ASSERU Association des Eleveurs du Rwanda
9) MOMOR Mouvement Monarchiste Rwandais
10) MUR Mouvement pour 1’Union Rwandaise
11) PAMOPRO Parti Monarchiste Progressiste
12) PSCR Parti Social Chretien du Rwanda
13) UAARU Union des Aborozi Africains du Rwanda
14) UMAR Union des Masses Rwandaises
15) UNAFREUROP: Union Afro-Europeenne
16) UNINTERCOKI: Union des Interets Communs du Kinyaga

Icyitonderwa: Habayeho n’utundi dushyaka dutoya, nk’iryaharaniraga ubwigenge bucagase (autonomie) bw’Igisaka. Iyo usuzumye ibyo ayo mashyaka yari agamije n’uko ateye muri rusange, usanga yari ashingiye kuri ibi bikurikira: inyungu z’Abanyarwanda bose, imyuga, amoko, uturere, amadini, kurega imipaka y’u Rwanda, ubwoko bw’ubutegetsi (regime politique, ubwami).

Ikindi ni uko urebye amazina y’amwe muri ayo mashyaka, usanga kuyumva neza bitari bisobanukiye abayoboke ndetse n’abayahimbye. Urugero ni nka “association du parti…”, cyangwa “parti du mouvement…” hari n’amashyirahamwe yiyitaga “association” ariko akigaragaza nk’amashyaka, akitabira amatora ari uguhatanira umwanya muri politiki.

Ayo mashyaka yashoboye kuvuka kubera uburenganzira Guverinoma y’Ububiligi yatanze mu iteka ryo ku wa 8 Gicurasi 1959 ryatangaga uruhushya rwo gushinga amashyaka ya politiki, kandi ryagombaga gukurikizwa ku itariki ya 15 Kanama 1959.

Amashyaka matoya yageze aho arazimira nyuma y’amatora ya komini yo mu wa 1960. Yabonye amajwi make, bituma abura umwanya mu butegetsi, noneho arazimira. Hasigara yayandi ane makuru.

Hifashishijwe agatabo Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda, ka Perezidansi ya Repubulika,Kigali Kanama 1999

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