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1 Nyakanga umunsi w’ubwigenge mu Rwanda

Mu mwaka wa 1897, ibwami bemeye kuba ingaruzwamuheto z’Abadage: bajya mu kwaha kwabo. Muri Werurwe 1897, Kapiteni Ramsay yahaye ibwami bari i Runda, ibendera ry’Abadage n’urwandiko rwo kuragira u Rwanda (Protectorat / Protectorate).

Rwanda Begins Repealing ALL Pre-Independence Laws – THE CHRONICLES

Ubukoroni ubwabwo, aho bugeze bose butera imihindukire y’inzego z’ubutegetsi, z’ubukungu, z’imibanire y’abantu. Ikindi ni uko ubukoroni bwazanye n’amadini yo hanze (ubukirisitu n’ubuyisilamu). Ayo madini kandi nayo afite inkurikizi mu mihindukire y’imibereho y’abantu, mu nzego z’iyobokamana n’uburyo bwo gutekereza, n’ubuzima n’ibidukikije.

U Rwanda Abazungu basanze mu mpera y’ikinyajana cya 19, rwari rufite ibibazo mu rwego rw’ubutegetsi nyuma y’itanga ry’umwami Kigeri IV Rwabugiri, cyane cyane ibibazo biturutse ku ngaruka z’amakimbirane ya Rucunshu.

Ariko ibyo bibazo by’ubutegetsi byafashe indi ntera kubera ubukoloni kandi wenda Abanyarwanda bari kubibonera indi nzira, ibindi bisubizo byihariye.

Ubwami bwahinduye isura byanze bikunze; bwatakaje ingufu. Ubwigenge burabura. Bituma umwami atari agishoboye gufata ibyemezo n’ingamba zo kuyobora igihugu uko ashatse

Mu gihe cy’Abadage

Ubutegetsi bw’Abadage bwajegeje ubwami ariko ntibwabusenya, n’umwami akomeza kugira ububasha (autorite/authority) bumwe na bumwe yari asanganywe. Yakomeje kwica no gukiza, kugabira, kunyaga abo ashatse n’ubwo byagiye bigabanuka. Ikindi ni uko ubwiru bwari igishyitsi cy’ingenzi cy’ubwami bwakomeje kubaho.

Ubutegetsi bw’umwami ntibwigeze bubangamira Abadage, ahanini kubera ingufu zabo: bari barabonye isomo ku gitero cy’i Shangi cyaneshejwe n’Ababiligi (Nyakanga 1896) ku ngoma ya Rutalindwa. N’abategetsi b’Abanyarwanda ubwabo bari bafite amakimbirane ashingiye ku butegetsi: Urugero ni nk’ ibya Ndungutse na Basebya (1911 – 1912).

Icyo umuntu yasozerezaho ni uko Abadage bashyigikiye ubwami n’umwami, bakanagira imigambi yo gushyira igihugu mu majyambere, aliko ibyo ntibyabujije ko ubutegetsi bwabo bwa gikoloni bwahungabanyije ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda.

Ingero: kuba u Rwanda rwaratakaje ubwigenge, umwami ntabe akiri ipfundo ry’Abanyarwanda bose. Kuba barashyigikiye Abanyamadini mashya kandi nta we uyobewe ko idini rishya ryose rihindura imibereho, umuco n’ubufatanye bw’umuryango.

Mu gihe cy’Ababiligi

Ku gihe cy’Ababiligi ubwami bwataye agaciro. Mbere iteka ry’umwami ntiryasubirwagaho, ntawaricagaho: yari Nyamugirubutangwa.

Mu wa 1917, umwami yategetswe gusinya ko buri munyarwanda azajya mu idini yishakiye. Ababigizemo inyungu ni abagatolika. Muri uwo mwaka nyine nibwo Ababiligi bambuye umwami w’u Rwanda uburenganzira bwo guhanisha kwica cyangwa kwica atari ukubera igihano. Kuva ubwo ntawari ugitinya ko umwami yamwica.

Mu wa 1923, umwami yatakaje uburenganzira bwo kugaba no kunyaga abatware atabyemerewe n’Ababiligi (na Rezida). Abakoroni basimbuye umwami mu bubasha no mu cyubahiro. Kubera ibyo, Abatware bamwe na bamwe n’urubyiruko rw’ibwami batangiye gusuzugura umwami no kuyoboka Abazungu, ari abakoroni ari n’Abapadiri.

Mu mwaka wa 1925, kugira ngo ubwami burusheho guta agaciro, Rezida w’u Rwanda yavanyeho ubwiru (twavuze), yaciye umuhango w’umuganura: umwami yayoboraga uwo muhango bikagaragaza ko ariwe nyiruburumbuke ari nawe utanga kororoka; muri uwo mwaka, umutware w’abiru Gashamura Ababiligi bamucira ishyanga (i Gitega mu Burundi). Guhera icyo gihe, ubwami bwa Musinga na Nyina bwari busigaye kw’izina gusa. Kumunyaga ku wa 12 Ugushyingo 1931 kwari nko gusonga iyagaramye.

Muri make ubutegetsi bwite bushyashya bwadukanywe n’Ababiligi bwahungabanyije cyane ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda, bushyira imbere ubwoko bumwe, uretse ko muri ubwo bwoko hatoneshejwe bake, ikindi gice kinini cy’Abanyarwanda kigakandamizwa bikabije.

Inzira yo kwigobotora ubukoloni (1952 – 1962)

Iyo myaka cumi (1952 – 1962)  irakomeye mu mateka y’u Rwanda. Kumva ibyayibayemo ni kimwe mu byafasha umuntu kumenya amateka mu rwego rwa politiki n’urw’umubano mu Banyarwanda ubwabo. Nicyo gituma ari byiza kureba ibyagize uruhare mu mihindukire y’igihugu, no gusuzuma ibibazo by’ingutu byagiye bigaragara.

Abagize uruhare mu kwigobotora ubukoroni, abantu n’imiryango, n’impamvu nyamukru ni :

  • Abaturage (rubanda) bari bafite ibibazo byinshi bimaze kubasaguka;
  • Abategetsi b’Abanyarwanda, uhereye ku mwami Mutara Rudahigwa bari barambiwe igihugu cy’abakoloni, barangamiye ubwigenge;
  • Abategetsi b’abakoloni, bari bafite gahunda yo gutegeka igihugu imyaka myinshi. Kubera ko wenda igihugu cyari indagizo nta gahunda y’iterambere bagaragazaga;
  • Abize bari bari mu rwego rw’abitwaga “elites/elites”, ni ukuvuga indatwa, indobanure; banabitaga “evolues”. Ahanini ni abize mu maseminari (intoya n’inkuru) n’abize muri Groupe Scolaire d’Astrida.
  • ONU guhera mu wa 1948, ONU yatangiye kohereza abayirebera imitegekere y’Ababiligi kubera ko uwo muryango wari waragiranye n’Ababiligi, kw’itariki ya 13 Ukuboza 1946, amasezerano yo kugira Rwanda-Urundi indagizo (Accord de Tutelle/Trusteeship);
  • Kiliziya gatolika yari ivuye mu myidagaduro yerekana ko ariyo yari iri imbere mu gihugu, inafite uruhare mu buyobozi bwa politiki (isezerano rya Mutara Rudahigwa na Rosalie Gicanda, batisimu y’umwami n’umugabekazi, kwegurira u Rwanda Kristu umwami, guhabwa impeta ya Papa Piyo wa XII, ibirori by’akataraboneka by’imyaka mirongo 50 Kiliziya Gatolika yari imaze mu Rwanda byabereye Astrida mu w’i 1950), hakaba n’umwanya ugaragara Kiliziya gatolika yari itangiye guha abarayiki (laïcs) mu mirimo yayo, n’umwaduko w’indi miryango y’abihayimana kuko kugeza ubwo Abapadiri bera bari barihariye urubuga.

Hifashishijwe inyandiko Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda, Perezidansi ya Repubulika,Kanama1999

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